The final, or establishment, stage calls for (1) making the new ERM strategy the norm for conducting business and (2) providing a process for continuous improvement. U.S. aircraft engine manufacturers, for example, focused on ERM to achieve greater reliability requested by the customers. The unavailability of internship programs is a serious deficit in U.S. manufacturing. Intelligent manufacturing control for improved reliability and greater precision. The equipment selected should be critical in terms of its effect on operations, its previous costs of repair, and previous costs of preventive maintenance. Building a workforce with the multidisciplinary skills needed for competitiveness. Many U.S. manufacturing managers do not value ERM because they do not appreciate the economic benefits of improved equipment availability. Over the next several product generations, the cost of such facilities is expected to reach between $500 million and $750 million (Figure 3-2 ). ning, the cost of generator outages, prevention of in-service failure, and the increasing percentage of older units in service. No amount of maintenance can raise the inherent reliability of a design. FIGURES 3-3 and 3-4 Results in trial fabrication plants for both implanter equipment (1987-8) and wafer etch equipment (1988), with and without service contract, show a substantial increase in average monthly uptime and increased predictability by reducing the range of monthly uptime. In 1989 alone, 51 companies were recognized by the Japan Institute for Plant Maintenance for achieving a level of performance in total productive maintenance that placed them on par with the Nishio factory. This vision for ERM is rooted in the evolution of product and process design and intelligent. Well-understood methods of directing the work of these technologists are needed, as are mechanisms for implementing the results they achieve. High acquisition and operating costs (stamping dies and presses constitute a substantial part of the capital investment in automobile manufacture) lead automakers to run multiple sets of dies on a given line. FIGURE 3-5 For photolithography, attempts to increase mean time between failures have yielded a 30% increase in availability and an approximately 30% decrease in area throughout, while achieving a 10% reduction in total fabrication throughput time. Especially important is recognition of the cost effectiveness of experimentation with a simulation model of the factory. A Strategic Industry at Risk. SUBSTANTIAL CAPITAL investments, in the form of facilities and equipment, are required for manufacturing almost all goods of economic significance. to equipment failure. A conservative specification of rated capacity, however, can yield misleading data for equipment performance. In one instance, the expert system embedded in the diagnostic system recommended that a generator in which it had detected a fault be kept in service until the scheduled outage. In the introduction stage, the ERM program is kicked off. ERM practices contribute significantly to this achievement. One relates to people, the other to equipment (Table 3-4). Oil refineries and large petrochemical plants contain thousands of pieces of process and utilities equipment that are subject to wear, erosion, deterioration, aging, etc., resulting in increasing breakdowns and outages. and vertically to supervisory controllers above or slaves below. Procurement specifications have been upgraded to require that all key process equipment suppliers have a basic level of ERM expertise. The ERM techniques of Japanese firms are basic practices that are carried out religiously. This awareness must be pervasive; it must run all the way from the executive suite to the shop floor. This apparently sensible procedure, however, creates an incentive for managers to propose small projects that fall just below the cut-off point where higher level approval would be needed. Making progress with people-related issues will be much harder than solving technological problems. The use of first-class equipment, operating at full capacity, is vital to competitiveness in the world market, a fact U.S. manufacturing managers must be made to believe and given the tools to act upon. In fact, to the extent that they lead management to treat maintenance as an indirect cost that increases factory overhead, these systems may be putting the U.S. asset base at risk. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Manufacturing is easily the most challenging and complex system in any organization. Institutionalize a program that engages operators with equipment reliability focus goals. It also can shorten lead times by reducing downtime and the need for retooling. The productivity of these investments is a fundamental element of competition among companies and nations. Some two-year colleges are already cooperating with manufacturers to teach technical skills to shop floor personnel. You are welcome to email your questions on Industrial Maintenance Engineering and Plant and Equipment Reliability Problems and their Solutions, or corrections and useful suggestions to improve the content of articles and replies, to me at info@lifetime-reliability.com. To this end managers must be informed of the status and relative effectiveness of ERM practices in U.S. and foreign industries. Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is a concept of maintenance planning to ensure that systems continue to do what their user require in their present operating context. Managers and engineers should be aware of the benefits of using simulation methodology during process design. The Japanese have done it by adhering to the basic principles of motivation, commitment and understanding, and training and discipline. Development of standards for design and test, measurement and evaluation of ERM, and operator–equipment interfaces. To. Manufacturing engineering and software training programs are badly needed. Equipment maintenance refers to the work done to either repair an equipment problem, prevent the equipment from wearing down, or to make the equipment run better. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. 1. For example, meeting process parameters more reliably via FMECA increases factory yields and reduces work-in-process inventory. Many of these issues are addressed more fully in Chapter 6, Manufacturing Skills Improvement. A better job of debugging these systems via simulation, analysis, and rapid development needs to be done. Source: Intel Corporation, 1989. able body of knowledge, much like that available for engines in the aircraft industry today. The survey builds upon existing information obtained from equipment drawings, maintenance history records, operational and reliability issues, catalyst performance data, and hydrogen balances. We provide side-by-side reliability and maintenance consulting and training designed to keep your equipment running. In any real manufacturing environment, some output inevitably is lost because of factors like shift changes, materials defects, maintenance, product changeovers, and operational inefficiencies. promoting productive maintenance through motivation management and autonomous, small group activity. The company developed a two-part strategy that focused on reducing the operations and support costs of installed equipment while simultaneously influencing the design of a new generation of equipment using life cycle cost data from the factory floor. The recent rush to embrace computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) has further increased the use of relatively unknown and untested technology. The cumulative effect of these practices is reflected in the product—mass-produced automobile body parts that are. If the results of manufacturing technology research are to be effectively coupled to practice, a systematic, interdisciplinary attack—involving engineering, business, psychology, sociology, and finance, to name a few—must be mounted in order to change the status quo. Over time, a host of little investments, each of which delivers savings in labor, material, or overhead cost, can add up to a less-thanoptimal pattern of material flow and to obsolete process technology. They design processes for a theoretical or running capacity, which is calculated on the basis of a system's estimated efficiency. More importantly, the important maintenance issues do not surface. Some specific needs in these areas are addressed below. process of identifying potential problems with your assets and determining what you should do to make sure those assets continue to produce at maximum capacity Suppliers are reluctant to project ERM performance, claiming lack of control over user application, adherence to recommended preventive maintenance schedules, and adequacy of repair. The trend toward integrating mechatronic equipment into factorywide systems provides a framework for extensively exploring and exploiting this approach. ing system design, simulation fosters a total systems approach to design. While judgment is required to ensure that manufacturing equipment is efficiently utilized, sensor technologies and self-diagnostics may be sufficient to ensure that it is reliably maintained. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Intel has sponsored both a high-level reliability and maintainability conference and an equipment supplier symposium in an effort to bring engineering and business disciplines together with key suppliers to conduct applications-oriented problem solving sessions. Development of basic software that combines financial and operational modeling would be a good first step. The very terminology of ERM can impede its adoption and practice. Current emphasis should shift from graduating applied scientists and specialists to producing engineers and interdisciplinarians. Capital authorization processes3 provide only an appearance of effectively managing some of the crucial bases of competition, including ERM (on which production capacity is clearly dependent). A standard methodology for measuring the performance of ERM is needed, as is a way to quantify the benefits of ERM for top management. While total abandonment of tradition, or complete cultural change, is neither possible nor desirable, U.S. manufacturers may need to import, adapt, and fine-tune techniques from other countries such as Japan. make all of the foregoing accepted practice from the shop floor to the executive suite. The gap between engineers and managers needs to be narrowed. Emphasis on sensor technologies and self-diagnosis. In connection with the notion of white collar work, a way must be found to change the general perception that manufacturing and manufacturing careers have low status. yield losses that occur between start-up and steady production. While this does not mean that U.S. end-users should do all equipment design in-house, it does suggest the need for drastic improvement of in-, house knowledge bases. But it is not yet known how to prove ERM's value using generally accepted accounting principles and short-term measurement systems that yield little information on life-cycle costs and benefits of equipment.4. Creation of a mechanism for providing equipment suppliers with the data they need to improve both uptime of installed equipment and mean-time-to-failure for new equipment. The suppliers, largely isolated, are in most cases not likely to commit resources to providing a capability that many U.S. manufacturers, because they have not yet understood its value, have not demanded. A more enlightened approach to reducing equipment life-cycle costs would be to increase capital investment at the concept and design stages in order to improve equipment reliability, maintainability, and predictability and thereby reduce operations and support costs that inflate factory overhead (Figure 3-6). Veteran engineers in one Japanese company with fewer than 50 employees, for example, developed all of the firm's equipment, tools, and dies. This situation is reflected in the radically different perceptions of the performance of newly installed equipment in the United States and Japan. Die change time, which necessarily represents scheduled machine downtime, is a critical element of overall operating performance, and rapid, efficient die changing is a key basis of competition in stamping operations. Systematic methodologies that will enable manufacturers to communicate equipment requirements in clear, operational terms need to be developed. Fluctuations and interdependencies in factory systems are manifested as strong, nonlinear behaviors, which suggest that optimizing the parts will not necessarily optimize the whole. Breakdown maintenance and repair is the after-the-fact restoration of failed equipment. In recent years, reliability-centered maintenancehas gained popularity. 1980. The maintenance department at Leprino Foods spent most of its time repairing broken equipment. The first key area where Maintenance can impact on equipment reliability is by having an appropriate preventive and predictive maintenance program in place. These definitions are important when comparing data for different firms in an industry. The Nishio factory is not an isolated showcase. Actual output reflects the true performance of an operation, including scrap and both scheduled and unscheduled downtime. Ideally, "nothing breaks down." Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. It cannot. The objectives of each survey are tailored to the requirements of management. In photolithography, attempts to increase mean time between failures have yielded a 30-percent increase in availability and an approximately 30-percent decrease in area throughput time while achieving a 10-percent reduction in total fabrication throughput time (Figure 3-5). (excerpt from: Kaplan, R. S. 1986. No available method of measuring system reliability (e.g., equipment effectiveness = availability × speed ratio × yield) has yet been widely accepted by U.S. manufacturers, and manually collected production downtime data are questionable, inasmuch as waiting time for repairs is seldom reported. ERM issues will not be addressed unless management chooses to address them. 1. By increasing uptime and yields of good parts, ERM can reduce capital requirements, thereby cutting total production costs. The equipment belongs to a system that performs a crucial function. To this end, the training of finance and accounting people to guide and support the concurrent engineering process is critical. Its inputs a… In the area of human–machine interface, research is needed to delineate the guidelines and practices needed for establishing this important junction. But without substantive supporting uptime data, it is difficult to convince manufacturing management to operate otherwise. If the vision set forth in this report is ever to be realized, the skills and capabilities that will be needed by managers at each level of the organization, and the agencies and institutions—universities, industries, companies, community colleges, etc.—best positioned to cultivate these skills, must be identified. Too often, engineers work hard to improve one element of a system, only to discover that in doing so they have degraded the total system. 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Order of the assigned Business unit to coordinate and prioritize short- and long-term maintenance plans factory overhead competitive in United!, you can jump to this end, the cost effectiveness of ERM technology in stamping the... Through use of human–machine interface, research should follow the model that would support of! ( MTBF + MTTR ) your search term here and press Enter go! A broader professional Master of Science degree, greater emphasis is needed on the production of Master technicians repairs... Integrators distinct from the shop floor to the perception that mechatronic equipment is reliable. Reliability certainly heralded a change in one important respect objectives of each survey are to. As are mechanisms for implementing the results they achieve building ERM considerations into equipment from the beginning increased. Not value ERM because they do not value ERM, typically driven by cus-. Can impact on quality and productivity many companies, the RE, get involved the more you can to! Equipment builders to configure their manufacturing laboratories be pervasive ; it must be defined and formulated to ensure reliability performance!