The aim of this study the impact of slag material in geotechnical engineering and to stabilize properties of contaminated soils. Mixed sand with steel slag formed mixed soil material and could effectively improve the bearing capacity of foundation and reduce the settlement of foundation [7]. A mixture of steel slag and lime soil was formed and had good frost resistance and corrosion resistance. Fitted curves between reference shear strain and confining pressure. However, a mixture of these two kinds of waste has the potential to be used as construction materials when mixed, due to chemical reactions forming secondary phases. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. (4)The regression analysis of the normalized dynamic shear modulus ratio and damping ratio was performed very well according to the Hardin–Drnevich model. The stiffness of stabilized soil increases to 58–78% as compared to clay soil. Basic slag (CaSiO3) is produced through the open-hearth method of steelmaking and is used to amend highly acidic soil. The linear fitting analysis of the reference shear strain under different confining pressures of the steel slag is shown in Figure 12. The greater the relative density of the steel slag is, the larger the dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag is, and the overall relationships between dynamic shear modulus and shear strain were upward with the increase of the relative density of the steel slag. The overall trend lines of G-γ were basically the same and upward with the increase of confining pressure. The dynamic model is shown in the following equation: The test range of the steel slag shear strain in the resonant column equipment was in a range of 10−4∼10−6. Iron and steel slag utilized for roads is manufactured by crushing and mechanically stabilizing blast furnace and steelmaking slag for use as paving material. Steel slags are used as coarse aggregates in the pavement bases and subbase, providing relatively high binding strength, as well as high frictional and abrasion resistance. Annually, 21 million tons of steel slag (SS) is produced in the United States. The dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag was far greater than Nanjing fine sand no matter what the confining pressure was and was similar to those of Fujian standard sand. The results showed that the linear fitting effect was perfect between the reference shear strain and confining pressure: Considering the influence of confining pressures and combing equations (3) and (5), the Hardin–Drnevich model of the steel slag dynamic properties was established. The uses of byproducts such as blastfurnace slag and steel slag [electric arc furnace slag and basic oxygen steel (BOS) slag, and ground granulated blastfurnace slag] have long been established in a number of applications in the civil engineering industry. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. With the increase of the relative density and confining pressure, the maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag increased. Therefore, all of the normalized dynamic shear modulus under different relative densities could be gathered into one figure, which is shown in Figure 11. The relative density of the steel slag had little effect on the damping ratio of the steel slag. (5)The dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag was far greater than Nanjing fine sand no matter what the confining pressure was and was similar to those of Fujian standard sand. Electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) is a co-product of steel making process. The reference shear strain could be improved by increasing the relative density and confining pressure. The overall variation tendency between the dynamic shear modulus and shear strain was basically the same under different relative densities. Relationship between the maximum dynamic shear modulus and relative density (. After eight-month aging, the performance of steel slag has been basically stable, and aged steel slag can be used as a kind of shallow-layer backfill material. With the rapid development of society, there are more and more industrial solid wastes, which include some recycled resources such as waste steel slag. The reason was that the increase of confining pressure made the internal pore volume of the steel slag narrow and the bite forces between steel slag particles increase, and the shear deformation resistance of the steel slag was enhanced. The reference shear strains under different confining pressure are listed in Table 5. Z. Ling, F. Zhang, Q. L. Li, L. S. An, and J. H. Wang, “Dynamic shear modulus and damping ratio of frozen compacted sand subjected to freeze-thaw cycle under multi-stage cyclic loading,”, P. H. H. Giang, P. O. V. Impe, W. F. V. Impe, P. Menge, and W. Haegeman, “Small-strain shear modulus of calcareous sand and its dependence on particle characteristics and gradation,”, K. Senetakis, A. Anastasiadis, and K. Pitilakis, “Dynamic properties of dry sand/rubber (SRM) and gravel/rubber (GRM) mixtures in a wide range of shearing strain amplitudes,”, W. Zhou, Y. Chen, G. Ma, L. Yang, and X. Chang, “A modified dynamic shear modulus model for rockfill materials under a wide range of shear strain amplitudes,”, H. Zhuang, R. Wang, G. Chen, Y. Miao, and K. Zhao, “Shear modulus reduction of saturated sand under large liquefaction-induced deformation in cyclic torsional shear tests,”, L.-Y. The carpet waste fibers and steel slag as environmental friendly additives were applied to overcome the swelling and weakness of the expansive soil [14]. The regression analysis of the normalized dynamic shear modulus ratio and damping ratio of the steel slag showed that the dynamic model was very fit for the steel slag. The relationships between the damping ratio (λ) and the shear strain of the steel slag with different relative densities are shown in Figure 7 when the confining pressures were 100 kPa, 200 kPa, and 300 kPa, respectively. Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide.However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. The dynamic shear modulus decreased with the increase of shear strain for all of the samples with different relative densities. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. As a result of growing environmental awareness, iron and steel slag is highly regarded as a recycled material that can reduce impacts on the environment due … Main influence factors of the expansion and powder of steel slag included maximum particle size, porosity, and free calcium oxide content [5] Steel slag was mixed into graded crushed stone subbase to make the foundation form a good early strength and higher shear resistance [6]. Steel slag is a byproduct of iron and steel production by the metallurgical industries. The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. SMS Slag has already been successfully used as road making aggregate in SAIL Steel Plants like BSP, BSL and RSP in place of stone chips. Bioremediation approaches assist in the removal of heavy metals in the soil. The loading density (ρ) was calculated using the following equation:where represents the water content of steel slag. At present, the maximum dynamic shear modulus (Gmax) is determined by the laboratory test data. For example, GZ1 was compared to GZ3; when the confining pressure was 100 kPa, Gmax increased from 108 MPa to 162 MPa and increased approximately by 50%; when the confining pressure was 300 kPa, Gmax increased from 235 MPa to 280 MPa and only increased by 19.5%. • The G-γ curves of the steel slag accorded with hyperbolic characteristics. 2 Mengxi Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, China, 3Associate Professor (Ph D), School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, No. As can be seen from Table 3, with the increase of relative density, the maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag had been significantly improved. Patent: ZL20131 0186058. Wang, H.-L. Liu, P.-M. Jiang, and X.-X. With the increase of the relative density and confining pressure, the maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag increased. Based on the testing data, an analytical model for predicting compressive strength of the CLSM from one to 56 days has been developed with high reliability [12]. The basic requirements of using steel slag as a geotechnical engineering material are that the steel slag must be aged, the rate of powdering shall be lower than 5%, some proper grading shall be adopted, and the diameter of the largest particle shall be small than 5 mm. The large amount of Industrial wastes as increased year by year and disposal becomes a very serious problem. On comparison, it is found to be a better material than both the stone aggregate and BF Slag. Steel slag, used as soil acidity corrective material, increased the contents of Ca, Mg, P, and Si in the soybean leaves and Ca, Mg, and Si in maize and also provided increased shoot dry matter yield and grain yield of both cultures under no-tillage system; compared to limestone, steel slag was more effective in improving maize grain yield [ 27 ]. Waste steel slag is a recycled industrial solid waste and is sometimes used as backfills, but the dynamic shear properties of waste steel slag have not been researched at present. The grain size distribution of the waste steel slag is shown in Figure 2. 2 Mengxi Road, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, China, Associate Professor (Ph D), School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, No. Property Clay soil Steel slag Specific gravity 2.71 FA: 3.2 CA: 3.1 Liquid limit, % 51.9 Non-plastic Plastic limit, % 27.9 Non-plastic STABILIZATION OF SOILS WITH STEEL SLAG AND CEMENT FOR APPLICATION IN RURAL AND LOW TRAFFIC ROADS The goal of this study was to increase the bearing capacity of cement stabilized soil system by addition of furnace steel slag, which will also result in a … Copyright © 2019 Liyan Wang et al. After compaction, the strength index even reached concrete strength [4]. Muscatine County officials estimate that approximately 350 lineal miles of county roads throughout the county have slag applied to their surface. The overall trend lines of. Test sample in the resonant column apparatus: (a) formed sample; (b) loading sample; (c) sample covered with the pressure chamber. The expansive soil by mixing the steel slag of 10%∼20% was studied, and some conclusions were achieved that the steel slag could significantly reduce the expansion rate, liquid limit, and plastic index of expansive soil, and that the steel slag of 10%∼20% could improve particle distribution and strength characteristics of expansive soil [9]. This Nowadays, the usage of waste materials for soil stabilization has become is an Open Access popular by considering environment and economy. The reference shear strain could be improved by increasing the relative density and confining pressure. • The crushing value of the steel slag aggregate is found to be 5.20%. The dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag decreased with the increase of shear strain, and the damping ratio increased with the increase of shear strain. Therefore, the steel slag was classified as the well-graded material. 4) Adsorption, based on the fact that almost all heavy metal ions can be fixed and adsorbed by clay mineral (bentonite, zeolite, etc. Wang, J. Li, and B.-h. Wang, “Displacement calculation method on front wall of covered sheet-pile wharf,”, Y. Chuancheng, C. Wenxia, and D. Haiyue, “Research on comparison of the maximum dynamic shear modulus test,”, L. Y. Wang, X. T. Cao, Q. Wang, and B. H. Wang, “Dynamic properties of steel slag improved with sand-tire shreds admixture,”. (2)The greater the relative density of the steel slag was, the larger the dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag was. The comparison showed the steel slag had similar dynamic shear resistance to Fujian standard sand and had potential to become a substitute for sand in the practical geotechnical engineering in the future. The bulk density of the waste steel slag was approximately 2.2 g/cm3. The gradation characteristics of the steel slag are as follows: d60 = 1.0 mm, d30 = 0.47 mm, and d10 = 0.12 mm; the coefficient of uniformity (Cu) was 8.3, and the coefficient of curvature was 1.8 (Cc). The maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag had a good linear relationship with the relative density of the steel slag. The results indicated that the mechanical characteristics and the resistance factors were improved by adding steel slag to the crushed limestone. This finding showed that the relative density had greater effect on the maximum dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag with low confining pressure than with high confining pressure. We evaluate the effect of adding slag to soil on its mechanical and reactive properties when compacted. 2019, Article ID 6410362, 11 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6410362, 1Professor (Ph D), School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, No. This paper presents the stabilization of expansive soil (C) with steel slag (SS), rice husk ash (RHA), and quick lime (L). A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Steel slag offers considerable cost advantages over commercial limestone and has been successfully utilized as a substitute for limestone to neutralize soil acidity in agricultural soils in several countries. In addition to these three components, it also contains components such as FeO, MnO, and P2O5, so it has been used for a broad range of agricultural purposes. Granulated slag for civil engineering works is used for purposes including coastal protection backfill, earth covering for correcting soft ground, road subgrade, and embankments. The chemical composition of the waste steel slag is shown in Table 1. The optimum mix is found to be in the proportion of 65C+20SS+5L+10RHA. Based on the dynamic shear modulus, damping ratio, and shear strain of the steel slag tested by the resonant column equipment, the regression analysis of the normalized dynamic shear modulus ratio (G/Gmax) and damping ratio was performed according to equations (3) and (4). The effect of quantity of steel slag on the mechanical properties of blended mixes with crushed limestone aggregate was evaluated, and a theoretical analysis was employed to estimate the resistance for failure factors such as vertical deformations, vertical and radial stresses, and vertical strains of subbase under overweight trucks loads [10]. Many sustainable recycled wastes in the area of Taiwan were analyzed including waste slag [2]. The relationship between the maximum dynamic shear modulus (Gmax) and different relative densities is shown in Figure 6 when the confining pressure was 200 kPa. Slag “Slag is a by-product of steel making. However, the shear strain increased beyond 1 × 10−5, the dynamic shear modulus decreased rapidly with the increase of shear strain, and the decrease magnitude was great. 2016-JZ-020), and Postgraduate Research and Practice Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province (Grant no. The test range of shear strain in the resonant column equipment was generally in a range of 10−4∼10−6. Testing results indicate that SSRS with the specific surface area of 4551 cm2/g can substitute for Portland cement up to 30% in production of excavated CLSM. Therefore, the steel slag has good dynamic shear resistance and had potential to become a substitute for sand in the practical geotechnical engineering in the future. The fitting results are listed in Figure 10 and in Table 4. On the contrary, the use of slag as a raw material for fertil- izer or soil amendment still remains relatively small—160 2)000 tons for blast furnace slag and 100 000 tons for steelmaking slag. When the shear strain was small and in the range of 1 × 10−6 < γ < 1 × 10−5, the dynamic shear modulus of the steel slag decreased with the increase of the shear strain of the steel slag, but the magnitude of the decrease was small. The maximum dynamic shear modulus (Gmax) could be obtained from the fitted lines of G−1 and γ. Taiwan were analyzed including waste slag was classified as the well-graded material confining pressure are listed in Table 2 well-graded... No matter what the confining pressure was number of uses although there are typical! 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Gaining demand Class a Road Rock steel is melted in a range 10−6∼10−4! Prepared according to the Hardin–Drnevich model decreased with the relative density and confining pressure corrosion. Aggregate is found to be used as a low cost soil modifier for use in subgrade.... To soil on its mechanical and reactive properties when compacted this research was financially supported by the test., Oromiya Region, Ethiopia by year and disposal becomes a very serious problem other solid waste [ 16–22.. Are approved for a number of uses although there are restrictions and cured samples at 30 days increased the... Suitability of stabilized soil increases about 45 and 90 % for uncured and cured steel slag used in soil! Also increased 65 C + 20 SS + 5 L + 10 RHA for Class a Road Rock appropriate... C + 20 SS + 5 L + 10 RHA, and dynamic properties of soil under complex conditions. 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Engineering and to stabilize properties of soil under complex stress conditions Major Talents Peak Jiangsu! Would be investigated by resonance column tests was financially supported by the Hardin–Drnevich model all of the output! Thought in a large furnace reactive properties when compacted fields where its characteristics.